The beginning :
Of any time, men and women have sought to enhance their beauty through cosmetic products. The use of makeup dates back to the dawn of time and it is likely that prehistoric men practiced already the body paint.
if you find the first traces written in the Bible, archaeology has been possible to find accessories and cosmetics dating back to 5000 years BC.
3000 years before our era, the Egyptians were already using ointments and scented oils and maquillaient their face and their body using different dyes :
– red lips to the base of red mineral
– kohl, antimony or soot on the upper eyelids and the eyelashes
– coloring henna on the nails.
There has always been a strong belief among the Egyptians, as well as in other populations of the ancient world… indeed, it is said that, originally, the makeup on the lips would prevent the devil from entering the body of the individual through the mouth. In the same way, the Kohl of the eyes was for the purpose of protecting against the evil eye. In fact, the Egyptians applied this kohl in a circle around their eyes. We know more of a science than a dark circle drawn around the eye absorbs sunlight and, therefore, minimizes the reflection in the eye.
Kohl had to under protect it from harsh wind and sand. It was used to encircle the eye of a long and wide line, and to thicken the eyebrows. The shadows also contained medicinal plants to prevent ophtalmies.
In addition, these men and women practiced all the rituals of beauty that we use today as well as care of the body.
Some ingredients, like the silt of the Nile is used as a substance saponified, that the men and women rubbed on their bodies, to obtain a peeling of the skin, a coating, then oil, usually perfumed.
These techniques and products have been quickly transformed into shadow, and all kinds of beauty products, which has allowed them to market the merchant in some countries of Asia minor and North Africa.
Finally, we can conclude that, at this time, among the Egyptians, the cosmetic and make-up were important, a symbolic, above all, but also, and more importantly a very natural way.
Crusaders brought the makeup in Northern Europe from the Xiith century.
In the Thirteenth century, the nobles used makeup, hair dye and perfume.
In the first century, the mode was that it improved the skin with white lead, and chalk, as it emphasizes the look with a stroke of kohl and that enhances her complexion and her lips with red. Hence the use of abusive sometimes, in makeup, powders of rice, but also flies, fake moles made of black chiffon, glued on the face or the chest, to bring out the whiteness of the complexion.
From the Seventeenth century, in burgunde, the use of makeup extends across all social classes. While in the Eighteenth century, it utilized the red and fardait even to sleep, the Nineteenth century was marked by a return to the natural.
Industrialization and advances in science have revolutionized the world of cosmetics in the Twentieth and twenty-first centuries, including the emergence of synthetic fragrances, surfactants and preservatives
The Nineteenth century
The ideal : to have the air dying
From 1830, the beauty ideal is to have the air dying : “have good mine was too bourgeois “. On the face, applies makeup yellowish, greenish, and bluish ; the veins are drawn to the color blue ; the eye must be identified up to the cheekbone. In this perspective, women want to lose weight at any price –while at the beginning of the century we would prefer them chubby. To do this, they drink vinegar and eat that lemon.
Makeup fat to look dry
Fortunately, this trend of morbid going on and the makeup is a breakthrough : look fat once give way to a dry version. It was Alexander Napoleon Bourjois who throws in 1881, after having created, with his partner, the first sticks fat of perfumery theatrical Ponsin, of which Sarah Bernhardt was fond.
The industrialization of cosmetics
The second half of the Nineteenth century saw the industrialization of cosmetics. The packaging aesthetic attract the eye, the synthetic chemistry and the petrochemical industry improve the formulas. So far, a number of makeup products are still extremely toxic, even deadly, lead, sulphide of arsenic and zinc salts are still used as ingredients.
The Twentieth century
A make-up individual
If the previous periods established models to follow, the Twentieth-century advocates, on the contrary, a make-up custom, which adapts to the shape of the face. With the arrival of color television, it was necessary to find an idea to put the faces of the actors in the value on the screen, it marks the birth of the cosmeticians and services makeover.
Cosmetics, as a symbol of female liberation
Before 1910, the makeup is amoral and reserved for prostitutes. But from this period, women are fighting for their independence. They parade in News York in 1912 for the right to vote…while wearing a bold red lip scarlet. The makeup is becoming more and more accessible then, it is sold at a low price in the department stores and the first beauty salons made their appearance.
The improved formulas
As early as 1906, of the medical checks are finally performed on the cosmetics. White lead, responsible for thousands of deaths since Ancient times, is banned in the formulas. Cosmetics become care. The paraffin and vaseline make their grand entrance.
The 1910s : a tan, a mouth and eyes marked.
It is only in the Twentieth century that the fashion is tending towards a tan, signs of a holiday in the sun. The silent cinema, fond of close-ups on expressive faces, which tends to make up highly eyes and mouths, in order to accentuate the facial expressions of the actors. Maybelline created the first mascara in 1913 , and the very worship red lips “Kiss” made its appearance in 1927.
From the 1920s :
The advertisements in magazines extolling the merits of a happier life thanks to the make-up. During the great depression of 1929, the Zuniennes forego new clothes, but not their makeup. Helena Rubinstein creates small kits, specially for the women on the fields of battle and Elizabeth Arden has designed a lotion for the legs, in order to compensate the shortage of low.
The 1990s : towards a natural make-up.
The trend axis now to products for a natural beauty “. The bulbs and capsules also made their appearance, to act from the inside out. And if the makeup is not yet widely used by men, a care line is launched to them in 1985 by L’oréal